Treating Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities
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In a study of BPD patients versus control patients, when faced with expressions that were happy, sad, or fearful BPD patients showed significantly more activation versus control patients. In neutral faces, BPD patients attributed negative qualities to these faces. Misreading neutral faces is clearly related to transference misreadings that occur in psychotherapy and the creation of bad object experiences linked with projective identification. Also linked to BPD, is the presence of serotonin transporter 5-HTT in a short allele demonstrated larger amygdala neuronal activity when presented with fearful stimuli as in comparison to individuals with a long allele of 5-HTT.
As found in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study a short allele of 5-HTT predisposes the person to have hyperactivity in the amygdala in response to trauma, and thus moderated the impact of stressful life events leading to a higher risk of depression and suicidal idealities. These same qualities were not observed in individuals with long alleles of 5-HTT. However, the environment the child is in can change in impact of this gene, proving that correct treatment, intensive social support, and a healthy and nurturing environment can modify genetic vulnerability. Though believed to be over diagnosed, ADHD is highly comorbid for other disorders such as depression and obsessive compulsive disorder.
In studies of the prefrontal cortex in ADHD children, which is responsible for the regulation of behavior, cognition, and attention; and in the dopamine system there has been identified a hidden genetic polymorphisms.
More specific, the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene, responsible for inhibited prefrontal cortex cognition and less efficient receptors, causes more externalized behaviors such as aggression since the child has trouble "thinking through" seemingly ordinary and at level childhood tasks. ACC is described as a defect in the brain where the million axons that make the corpus collosum are either completely absent, or partially gone. In many cases, the anterior commissure is still present to allow for the passing of information from one cerebral hemisphere to the other.
The children are of normal intelligence level. For younger children, ages two to five, Agenesis of the corpus callosum causes problems in sleep. Sleep is critical for development in children, and lack of sleep can set the grounds for a manifestation of psychopathological disorders. In comparison, of children with autism, children with ACC showed less impairment on almost all scales such as anxiety and depression, attention, abnormal thoughts, and social function versus autistic children.
However, a small percentage of children with ACC showed traits that may lead to the diagnosis of autism in the areas of social communications and social interactions but do not show the same symptoms of autism in the repetitive and restricted behaviors category. The etiology of child psychopathology is a multi-factor path.
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A slew of factors must be taken into account before diagnosis of a disorder. The child's genetics, environment, temperament, past medical history, family medical history, prevalence of symptoms and neuro-anatomical structures are all factors that should be considered when diagnosing a child with a psychopathological disorder. There are hundreds of causes of psychopathological disorders, and each one manifests at different ages and stages in child development and can come out due to trauma and stress.
Some disorders may "disappear" and reappear in the presence of a trauma, depression, or stress similar to the one that brought the disorder out in the child in the beginning. Girls more frequently manifested disorders than boys in similar situations.
By age sixteen about thirty percent of children will have fit the criteria for at least one psychopathology disorder. Only a small number of these children receive treatment for their disorder. Anxiety and depression disorders in children- whether noted or unnoted, are found to be a precursor for similar episodes in adulthood.
Usually a large stressor similar to the one the person experienced in childhood brings out the anxiety or depression in adulthood. Multifinality refers to the idea that two children can react to same stressful event quite differently, and may display divergent types of problem behavior. Psychopathological disorders are extremely situational- having to take into account the child, the genetics, the environment, the stressor, and many other factors to tailor the best type of treatment to relieve the child of the psychopathology symptoms. Many child psychopathology disorders are treated with control medications prescribed by a pediatrician or psychiatrist.
After extensive evaluation of the child through school visits, by psychologists and physicians, a medication can be prescribed. A patient may need to go through several trials of medicines to find the best fit, as many cause uncomfortable and undesired side effects- such as dry mouth or suicidal thoughts can occur. There are many classes of drugs a physician can choose from and they are: psychostimulants , beta blockerss , atypical antipsychotics , lithium , alpha-2 agonists , traditional antipsychotics , SSRIs , and anticonvulsant mood- stabilizers.
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Given the multifinality of psychopathological disorders, two children may be on the same medication for two completely different disorders, or have the same disorder and be taking two completely different medications. ADHD is the most successfully treated disorder of child psychopathology, and the medications used have a high- abuse rate especially among college-aged students.
Psycho stimulants such as Ritalin , amphetamine- related stimulant drugs: e.
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Many of these drug treatment options are paired with behavioral treatment such as therapy or social skills lessons. Lithium has shown to be extremely effective in treating ADHD and bipolar disorder. Lithium treats both mania and depression and helps prevent relapse. The drug relieves bipolar symptoms, aggressiveness and irritability.
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Lithium has many, many side effects and requires weekly blood tests to tests for toxicity of the drug. Medications that act on cell membrane ion channels, are GABA inhibitory neurotransmission, and also inhibit excitatory glutamate transmission have shown to be extremely effective in treating an array of child psychopathological disorders. Pharmaceutical companies are in the process of creating new drugs and improving those on the market to help avoid negative and possibly life altering short term and long term side effects, making drugs more safe to use in younger children and over long periods of time during adolescent development.
The future of child psychopathology- etiology and treatment has a two-way path. In the same boat are the physicians who also say that not only do more of these disorders need to be recognized in children and treated properly, but also even those children who show some qualifying symptoms of a disorder but not to the degree of diagnosis should also receive treatment and therapy to avoid the manifestation of the disorder.
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By treating children even with slight degrees of a psychopathological disorder, children can show improvements in their relationships with peers, family, and teachers and also improvements in school, mental health, and personal development. So while there is more awareness of child psychopathological disorders and more research to prevent and effectively treat these disorders to maintain healthy emotional health in children, there is also a negative factor in that parents, schools, and psychologists may be more sensitive and therefore over-diagnose children with these disorders.
Mental health professionals and pharmaceutical marketing companies need to be cautious of making disorders too readily diagnosed and treated with medications. Child psychopathology is a real thing that thousands of children suffer from. While hundreds of children are diagnosed with a new disorder daily, researchers are developing new strategies to beat these disorders in children to allow all children the right to a happy and healthy childhood.
http://edukacinesprogramos.lt/profiles/ios/cellulare-iphone-usato.php With further education on the symptoms and implications of child psychopathology, psychologists and physicians will improve their accuracy in diagnosing children- giving the right diagnosis and discovering the most helpful treatment and therapies for children. The current trend in the U. Recent emphasis has also been on understanding psychological disorders from a relational perspective with attention also given to neurobiology. Practitioners who follow attachment theory believe that early attachment experiences of children can promote adaptive strategies or lay the groundwork for maladaptive ways of coping which can later lead to mental health disorders.
Research and clinical work on child psychopathology tends to fall under several main areas: etiology , epidemiology , diagnosis, assessment , and treatment. Parents are considered a reliable source of information because they spend more time with children than any other adult. A child's psychopathology can be connected to parental behaviors. Clinicians and researchers have experienced problems with children's self-reports and rely on adults to provide the information. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. J Atten Disord. Schimizzi A August Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Compton KL Dissertation Abstracts International. Muris P, Ollendick TH Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. Retrieved 12 September