Spatial Data Quality
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They are now moving to look at the engagement part much more but they need to consider how to put it out. They are developing apps and also considering how to improve air quality apps. They would like a sustainable infrastructure. There is an official way of defining the colour of sea waters which they use in the project and also comparing ground observations with satellite information. The project included the design of DIY devices to allow the measurement of water opacity. Finally, exploring water fluorescence. Citizen science is a way to complement official data — such as the data from the water directive.
After a break and demonstration from some of the projects, the first round-table of the day, which include executives from environment protection agencies across Europe started. And sustainable?
Metrics to Measure Open Geospatial Data Quality
The Riverfly project is an example of engaging people in monitoring to detect water quality and invertebrate sampling and how important it was for the Water Framework Directive WFD to include public participation. The issues of operationalisation received attention — there are different projects, how far are we from large-scale deployment? Colin Chapman Welsh Government — maturity across observatory projects vary from case to case and across issues. Technologies are still maturing, there is a need to respond to issues and mobilise resources to address issues that citizens bring up.
Systems approach to ecosystem management is also a factor in considering how to integrate observatories. There are too much reliance on macro modelling. There are some inter-linkages, but not an ecology of observatories, of interconnectedness and ability to survive. N eed better linkage with policy , but not across the board and no direct policy elements. The integration of citizens observatories is a fantastic opportunity at EU level — as issues of the environment suppose to be very visible.
Raymond Feron noted that government might have issues in keeping pace with citizens actions. Government organisations need to learn how to integrate citizens observatories, need to learn to reuse parts.
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Integrate research programme with implementation strategy. James Curran also stated that working with anglers and other stakeholders can increase trust. I n terms of quality and relevant, citizen science data is not different to other data. Laura Burke noted that no government have all the answers, and trust issues should be presented as such. Need to move away from concept of one organisation with a solution to any given problem.
David Stanners raised the issues of truth seeking. Within the cupernicos programme , there are opportunities to support services with citizen science. That's a no brainer! Following the point of views from the panellists, questions about trust, finding ways to include of people without access to technology were raised by the audience. Interestingly, James Curran noted that the issue of data quality from citizen science is not a major obstacles, inherently because environmental authorities are used to make decisions that are risk based.
There was willingness to work with intermediaries to reach out to under-represented groups. The next series of presentations covered citizen science activities that are not part of the citizens observatories projects. He argued that dB is not good measure, as noise is a perception issue and not about just measurement. NoiseWatch is seen as complementing existing monitoring stations because there as so few of them. Another application is Marine LitterWatch which provides a way for people to share information about the state of beaches.
LakeWiki Juhani Kettunen, who was not present is an initiative that focus on motoring Finnish lakes — was launched by Syke and it is aimed to allow local communities to take care of their lakes, record information and build a long term observations. Simple platform, recording information such as ice break up but it is aimed to allow locals write about the lake, maintain observations sites, upload pictures, announce local events and write in discussion forums, sites [this project is also noted in COST Energic network].
Trying to make water data available to everyone. Ideas of increasing export to new places. Involving the public with dyke monitoring because they can do things locally easily. I gave a talk about Mapping for Change air quality studies, and I hope to discuss them in a different post:. Community involvement in diffusion tube data coll design helped communities make case to authorities CitObsConf pic.
Fundamentals of Spatial Data Quality - ISTE
This is mostly a project focused on meteorological information. Issue of meteorology has a very long history of observations, going from BC. There is plenty of reliance of observed patterns of events. Informal folklore was used by early meteorology citizen science. The middle ages, there are examples of getting information to deal with flash flood. Within the project they created a volunteer thinking platform to support classifications of thunderstorms. Interestingly, a follow on question explored the link between extreme events floods last year and the role of the research project to provide relevant information.
CitObsConf pic. There was also a presentation from the SciCafe 2. The final panel explored issues on the challenges of citizen science I was part of this panel. Susanne noted that the city of Oslo developed some apps, such as safe for schools — people can experience their routes to schools and they are interested in more citizen science and citizen observatories.
Strategy for sustainability of engagement over time — Uta noted that the co-design process is very important and governance analysis to understand the processes and the local needs in WeSenseIt. The observatories need to consider who are the partners — authorities are critical to see the value of observatories and provide feedback. Jaime suggested — identifying points in the project that give participants feeling that they are part of the process, allowing people to participate in different ways.
Making people aware that they are part of the activities and they are valued. Showing the need for long-term observations. In WeSenseIT, they have privacy and consent setting — adhering to rules of social media, and it is an issue of data that came from other sources and how it is going to be reused. In general, Uta noted that WeSenseIt would like to try and make the data open as possible. Data preservation is an issue — how data was handled, if we assume that there are probably projects or more in Europe which is Max Craglia JRC, who chaired the session estimation.
The issues of citizen observatories, we need to consider the individual data and there is sometime concern about releasing unvalidated data. Bart pointed that Cobweb is taking care of privacy and security of data and they are storing information about observers and there are privacy rules. Privacy legislation are local and need to follow the information. It is important to work with existing social structures and that provide opportunity for empowerment. Views about ownership of data were raised. In terms of integration and synergy or interoperability of the citizen centred projects — interoperability is critical topic, the data need to be standardised and deal with the metadata the most boring topic in the world.
It should be collected at the right level. What is the role of scientists?
The link to policy also require an understanding of uncertainty. The discourse of science-policy is about what is considered as evidence. There is embracing of citizen science in environment agencies which was demonstrated in the first panel , but there is a need for honest discussion about what happen to the data , and what degree citizens can participate in decision-making.
Relevancy, legitimacy are critical to the understanding. There was also call for accepting the uncertainty in the data — which is integral part of citizen science data. David Stanners emphasised the need for legitimacy of the information that is coming from citizens observatories as part of the trust that people put in contributing to them.
The commission recognise that citizen observatories are not a replacement for institutional monitoring scheme although he mentioned maybe in the future. The potential of engaging users is tremendous, and the conference demonstrated the energy and scale of activities that can be included in this area. We need to link and close the gaps with scientists and policy makers. There is a need for market of citizen observatories and business models.
In the new call, they want to see the project generate and credible business processes.
Citizens observatories will need demonstrate raising funding from other sources. The Association of American Geographers is coordinating an effort to create an International Encyclopedia of Geography. Interestingly, this shows that publishers and scholars are still seeing the value in creating subject-specific encyclopedias.
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The citation for this entry will be:. Haklay, M. Volunteered geographic information, quality assurance.
Richardson, N. Castree, M. Goodchild, W.
Liu, A. Marston Eds. In the entry, I have identified 6 types of mechanisms that are used to ensure quality assurance when the data has a geographical component, either VGI or citizen science.