Adapting to Web Standards: CSS and Ajax for Big Sites

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Well, we should probably change that and specify these in a configuration file instead. This will make our life easier when we come to use loaders later on.

Getting started · Bootstrap

In webpack. Run everything again and it should all work as before. Now we have Webpack generating a bundle for us, the next thing we need to do is to include it somewhere. This will be a file named app. Now, if you have a look at index. At the bottom of the file we are including jQuery and a file called main. Look at the bottom of the file. You should see:. Refresh the page in the browser and satisfy yourself that the Read more… link still works. That will reduce the number of HTTP requests the page is making.

To do this we have to alter the app. Run npm run build and once again, refresh the page in the browser to satisfy yourself that the Read more… link still works. It does? Looking at index. As you can see, we are including main. Although in its standard configuration Webpack can only deal with JavaScript, we can use something called a loader to have it bundle our CSS, too. From the Webpack docs :. Loaders are transformations that are applied on the source code of a module. And we need to alter webpack.

Tips for authoring fast-loading HTML pages

As you can see, I have specified two loaders: css-loader and style-loader. Oh noes! What happened? We just need to use another loader. This time url-loader , which can convert assets such as fonts and images into Data URLs , which can then be added to the bundle:. Now the build should run. Test things out by removing the CSS include, recreating the bundle and refreshing the page. Now lets turn our attention to photos. There is a bit more going on on this page, as we are making use of two libraries, Slick Slider and Lightbox2, both of which rely on jQuery. Luckily, we can apply the techniques we have learned to include these in the bundle.

Also remove the CSS include from the head of the document and the script includes from the footer. This should give us:.

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In particular, some Drupal configurations are known to use import. IE8 does not fully support box-sizing: border-box; when combined with min-width , max-width , min-height , or max-height. For that reason, as of v3. IE8 has some issues with font-face when combined with :before.

Bootstrap uses that combination with its Glyphicons. If a page is cached, and loaded without the mouse over the window i. Hovering over the page body will show some of the icons and hovering over the remaining icons will show those as well. See issue for details. Bootstrap is not supported in the old Internet Explorer compatibility modes. Confirm the document mode by opening the debugging tools: press F12 and check the "Document Mode". This tag is included in all of Bootstrap's documentation and examples to ensure the best rendering possible in each supported version of Internet Explorer.

See this StackOverflow question for more information. Internet Explorer 10 doesn't differentiate device width from viewport width , and thus doesn't properly apply the media queries in Bootstrap's CSS. Normally you'd just add a quick snippet of CSS to fix this:. However, this doesn't work for devices running Windows Phone 8 versions older than Update 3 a. GDR3 , as it causes such devices to show a mostly desktop view instead of narrow "phone" view.


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For more information and usage guidelines, read Windows Phone 8 and Device-Width. As a heads up, we include this in all of Bootstrap's documentation and examples as a demonstration. The rendering engine of versions of Safari prior to v7. So if you had 12 individual grid columns, you'd notice that they came up short compared to other rows of columns. See Chrome bug fixed in Chrome v40 and WebKit bug As of iOS 9.

See WebKit bug Also, note that if you're using a fixed navbar or using inputs within a modal, iOS has a rendering bug that doesn't update the position of fixed elements when the virtual keyboard is triggered. A few workarounds for this include transforming your elements to position: absolute or invoking a timer on focus to try to correct the positioning manually.

This is not handled by Bootstrap, so it is up to you to decide which solution is best for your application. Thus, to close dropdowns in navbars, you must directly click the dropdown element or any other element which will fire a click event in iOS. Page zooming inevitably presents rendering artifacts in some components, both in Bootstrap and the rest of the web. Depending on the issue, we may be able to fix it search first and then open an issue if need be.

However, we tend to ignore these as they often have no direct solution other than hacky workarounds. Even though real hovering isn't possible on most touchscreens, most mobile browsers emulate hovering support and make :hover "sticky". In other words, :hover styles start applying after tapping an element and only stop applying after the user taps some other element. This can cause Bootstrap's :hover states to become undesirably "stuck" on such browsers.

Adapting to Web Standards CSS and Ajax for Big Sites

Some mobile browsers also make :focus similarly sticky. There is currently no simple workaround for these issues other than removing such styles entirely. In particular, as of Chrome v32 and regardless of margin settings, Chrome uses a viewport width significantly narrower than the physical paper size when resolving media queries while printing a webpage.

This can result in Bootstrap's extra-small grid being unexpectedly activated when printing. See issue and Chrome bug for some details. Suggested workarounds:. Also, as of Safari v8. See and WebKit bug for more details. One potential workaround for this is adding the following CSS:.

Core methods

Out of the box, Android 4. Unfortunately, the Browser app has lots of bugs and inconsistencies with CSS in general. See this StackOverflow question for details. The user agent sniffing avoids interference with Chrome, Safari, and Mozilla browsers. In order to provide the best possible experience to old and buggy browsers, Bootstrap uses CSS browser hacks in several places to target special CSS to certain browser versions in order to work around bugs in the browsers themselves.

These hacks understandably cause CSS validators to complain that they are invalid.